60 GHz RFIC and Antenna Design Initiative


Research Focus

Our research focus is to develop low-power on-chip antennas and to explore novel low-power RF design technologies and position algorithms, as well as a system for location, direction finding, and channel sensing.

Take a look at our RF Integrated Circuits and Millimeter-Wave Lab. - Now available for outside users!


Graduate students working with Prof. Rappaport

  • Shuai Nie

Some Recent 60 GHz Papers

Google Scholar Publication List

J. Murdock, E. Ben-Dor, F. Gutierrez, Jr., T.S. Rappaport, "Challenges and Approaches to On-chip Millimeter Wave Antenna Measurements," to appear n the "2011 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS)", Baltimore, MD, June 5-10. Full Citation

T.S. Rappaport, J.Murdock, F.Gutierrez, Jr., "State of the Art in 60-GHz Integrated Circuits and Systems for Wireless Communications," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 99, no.8, pp.1390-1436, Aug. 2011.Full Citation

F. Gutierrez, T. S. Rappaport, J. Murdock, "Millimeter-Wave CMOS Antennas and RFIC Parameter Extraction for Vehicular Applications," IEEE 72nd Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC), Ottawa, Canada, Sept. 6-9, 2010, pp.1-6. view

R. C. Daniels, J. N. Murdock, T. S. Rappaport, R. W. Heath, "60 GHz Wireless: Up Close and Personal," IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 7, December 2010, pp.44-50. view

F. Gutierrez, K. Parrish, T. S. Rappaport, On-Chip Integrated Antenna Structures in CMOS for 60 GHz WPAN Systems, Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom), Honolulu, HI, November 30December 4, 2009. Full Citation

T. S. Rappaport, F. Gutierrez, T. Al-Attar, Millimeter-Wave and Terahertz Wireless RFIC and On-Chip Antenna Design: Tools and Layout Techniques,Proceedings of IEEE First Workshop on Millimeter Wave and Terahertz Communications, in conjunction with IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom), Honolulu, HI, November 30-December 4, 2009. Full Citation

F. Gutierrez, K. Parrish, T. S. Rappaport, On-Chip Integrated Antenna Structures in CMOS for 60 GHz WPAN Systems, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 27, Issue 8, October 2009, pp.1367-1378.Full Citation

L. Ragan, A. Hassibi, T. S. Rappaport, C. L. Christianson, Novel On-Chip Antenna Structures and Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) Approaches for Millimeter Wave Devices, IEEE 66th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC), Baltimore, MD, October 1-3, 2007, pp. 2051-2055. Full Citation

C. H. Park, T. S. Rappaport, Short-Range Wireless Communications for Next-Generation Networks: UWB, 60 GHz Millimeter Wave PAN, and Zigbee,IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, Vol. 14, Issue 4, August 2007, pp. 70-78. Full Citation

C. Na, J. K. Chen, T. S. Rappaport, Measured Traffic Statistics and Throughput of IEEE 802.11b Public WLAN Hotspots with Three Different Applications, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 5, No. 11, November 2006, pp. 32963305. Full Citation

H. Wang and T. S. Rappaport, A Parametric Formulation of the UTD Diffraction Coefficient for Real-Time Propagation Prediction Modeling, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters (AWPL), Vol. 4, August 2005, pp. 253-257. Full Citation

C. Na, J. K. Chen, T. S. Rappaport, Hotspot Traffic Statistics and Throughput Models for Several Applications, Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (Globecom), Dallas, TX, November 29December 3, 2004, Vol. 5, pp. 3257-3263. Full Citation

C. R. Anderson and T. S. Rappaport, In-Building Wideband Partition Loss Measurements at 2.5 and 60 GHz, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 3, No. 3, May 2004, pp. 922-928. Full Citation

C. R. Anderson, T. S. Rappaport, K. Bae, A. Verstak, N. Ramakrishnan, W. H. Tranter, C. A. Shaffer, L. T. Watson, In-Building Wideband Multipath Characteristics at 2.5 & 60 GHz, Proceedings of Fall 2002 Vehicular Technology Conference, Vancouver, Canada, September 2429, 2002, pp.97-101. Full Citation

H. Xu, V. Kukshya, T. S. Rappaport, Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of 60 GHz Indoor Channels, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 20, No. 3, April 2002, pp. 620-630. Full Citation

H. Xu, T. S. Rappaport, V. Kukshya, Spatial and Temporal Characterization of 60 GHz Indoor Channels, Fall 2000 IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Boston, MA, September 2528, 2000, pp. 620-630. Full Citation

H. Xu, R. J. Boyle, T. S. Rappaport, J. H. Schaffner, Measurements and Models for 38 GHz Point-to-Multipoint Radiowave Propagation, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications: Wireless Communications Series, Vol. 18, No. 3, March 2000, pp. 310-321. Full Citation

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Description of Research

It is only recently, in the past 5 to 7 years, that worldwide governments have realized that semiconductor technologies may someday be produced at millimeter wave frequencies at reasonable cost. Today, federal governments in the US , Japan , and the EU have allocated spectrum at 60 GHz which has 7 GHz bandwidth available. This allocation offers an unprecedented opportunity to provide high bandwidth wireless connectivity, and is a clear indication that within a decade, it should be possible to provide truly massive bandwidths within local areas, at rates of several to tens of gigabits per second, so that massive information sources may be transmitted wirelessly within seconds or milliseconds. The capabilities of massively broadband wireless devices, operating at carrier frequencies of 60 GHz to 90 GHz, and above, will enable an era of ubiquitous portable content, and will eliminate today's bulky, cumbersome storage devices such as hard drives, large paper texts, and CDs. Based on results of this research project, and the one-time investment in faculty and infrastructure at NYU WIRELESS at New York University and NYU-Poly, bulky present-day storage devices will be replaced with wireless, low-power RF devices that enable incredible wireless data rates to transport the contents of low-cost silicon memory banks. Basic research in RF millimeter wave integrated circuit technology, combined with new theoretical and implementation approaches for new massive bandwidth media access protocols, is critical for US competitiveness, and critical infrastructure is provided through this project.

Prof. Rappaport's research group will work to solve challenging problems to enable accurate design and implementation of low-cost, low-power transceivers in this frequency range of 60 GHz and above.

Advanced CMOS manufacturing, at geometries finer than 0.1 micron, provides active devices which are adequate, with proper matching networks, for 60 GHz wireless applications. Our research will therefore concentrate in the following areas:

  1. Characterization of metals on standard CMOS processes at 60 GHz
  2. Design of tuning, matching, and combining networks using these metals
  3. Innovative combination of active and on-chip passive devices to construct basic transceiver building blocks
  4. Interfaces with multi-GHz data streams in modulators and demodulators
  5. Adaptive, directive antenna structures
  6. Packaging techniques


In addition, faculty with expertise in MAC and Network design layers will explore the memory structures required to pipeline data and to explore multi-user issues at data rates of several Gbps. This research problem requires new thinking in order to allow proper handling and buffering of data at this enormous rate. Furthermore, queue sizes and the power/bandwidth tradeoffs for a network of massively broadband nodes will be unlike any previous problem domain. This interdisciplinary team will address the following additional critical areas:

  • Real-time digital pipelining for implementing a digital MAC
  • Buffering and media access approach for Massively Broadband data transfers
  • Communication protocols and their performance
  • Network Architectures for connecting these devices


The pioneering research contemplated here, which will combine RFIC design and semiconductor research capabilities with MAC and Network layer research, will pave the way for basic research that could lead to single chip data transceivers that reliably transfer more than 5 Gb/s data for more than 5 meters in military or commercial applications, at a price of under $5 (at volumes of 5 million per month) in less than 5 years. This will lead to very-low-cost transceivers (under $1) that will enable unprecedented bandwidth networks for military, industries and consumers around the world as the production volumes ramp over the next decade, and as wireless replaces mechanical hard drives and hard media, such as CDs and books.

"The Emerging World of Massively Broadband Devices: 60 GHz and Above," Keynote Speech, Virginia Tech 2009 Symposium & Wireless Summer School, Blacksburg, VA, June 4, 2009.

FCC Frequency Spectrum Chart

Some Useful References on 60 GHz


  • Marcus, Michael and Bruno Pattan, "Millimeter Wave Propagation: Spectrum Management Implications," IEEE Microwave Magazine, June 2005.
  • Xu, Hao, Vikas Kukshya, T. S. Rappaport, "Spatial Characteristics of 60-GHz Indoor Channels," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 20, No. 3, April 2002, pp. 620-630.
  • C. R. Anderson and T. S. Rappaport, "In-Building Wideband Multipath Measurements at 2.5 and 60 GHz," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 3, No. 3, May 2004, pp. 922-928.


  • F. Gutierrez, T. S. Rappaport, J. Murdock, "Millimeter-Wave CMOS Antennas and RFIC Parameter Extraction for Vehicular Applications,"IEEE 72nd Vehicular Technology Conference Fall (VTC), Ottawa, Canada, Sept. 6-9, 2010, pp.1-6. view
  • Razavi, Bezad, "A 60GHz Direct-Converstion CMOS Receiver," ISSCC, San Fransisco, CA, February 9, 2005, 3 pp.
  • Gunnarsson, Sten E., Camilla Karnfelt, Herbert Zirath, Rumen Kozhuharov, Dan Kuylenstierna, Arne Alping, Cristian Fager, "Highly Integrated 60 GHz Transmitter and Receiver MMICs in a GaAs pHEMT Technology."
  • Tsal, Ming-Da, Huel Wang, Jul-Feng Kuan, Chih-Sheng Chang, "A 70GHz Cascaded Multi-Stage Distributed Amplifier in 90nm CMOS Technology."
  • Hunag, Ping-Chen, Ming-Da Tsal, Huel Wang, Chun-Hung Chen, Chih-Sheng Chang, "A 114GHz VCO in 0.13um CMOS Technology," ISSCC, San Fransisco, CA, February 9, 2005, 3 pp.
  • Floyd, Brian A., Scott K. Raynolds, Ullrich R. Pfeiffer, Thomas Zwick, Troy Beukema, Brian Gaucher, "SiGe Bipolar Transceiver Circuits Operating at 60GHz," IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 40, No. 1, January 2005.
  • Winkler, Wolfgang, Johannes Borngraber, Bemd Heinemann, Frank Herzel, "A Fully Integrated BICMOS PLL for 60GHz Wireless Applications,"ISSCC, San Fransisco, CA, February 9, 2005, 2 pp.


  • "Giga bits per second wireless at 60GHz: Ultra Wide Band and beyond"view
  • Noreus, Jonas, Maxime Flament, Arne Alping, Hebert Zirath, "System Considerations for Hardware Parameters in a 60GHz WLAN" view
  • Smulders, Peter, "Exploiting the 60GHz Band for Local Wireless Multimedia Access: Prospects and Future Directions" view
  • "60GHz Wireless Systems Advantages and Challenges" view
  • Ebert, Jean-Pierre, Eckhard Grass, Ralf Irmer, Rolf Kraemer, Gerhard Fettweis, "Paving the Way for Gigabit Networking" view
  • Fettweis, Gerhard, Ralf Irmer, "WIGWAM: system concept development for 1 GBit/s air interface" view
  • Doan, Chinh H., Sohrab Emami, David A. Sobel, Ali M. Niknejad, and Robert Brodersen, "Design Considerations for 60GHz CMOS Radios," IEEE Communications Magazine, December 2004.
  • R. C. Daniels, J. N. Murdock, T. S. Rappaport, R. W. Heath, "60 GHz Wireless: Up Close and Personal," IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 7, December 2010, pp.44-50. view


  • "Wireless Local Area Networks and Fixed Wireless Access" view
  • "WP5, D11 - Spectrum study and standardization status" view
  • "Project IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)" view
  • "Proposal on Establishment of a New Expert Group on Millimeter-Wave Communication Systems" view
  • Pollock, T., K. Saleem, E. Skafidas, C. Liu, "Preliminary 60GHz Channel Measurements," Presentation at 802.15 TG3c Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, November 2005.
  • Grass, Eckhard Maxim Piz, Frank Herzel, Rolf Kraemer, "Draft PHY Proposal for 60GHz WPAN," Presentation for IEEE 802.15. view

This work is sponsored by the Army Research Laboratory, Project W911F-08-0438, the Army Research Office, Project W911NF-05-2-0044, and the Advanced Microelectronics Research Center of The University of Texas at Austin.

This work was sponsored by:

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